opeRando chEmical spAce- and time-resoLved quantification of Solid Electrolyte Interphase in hard carbon anode for sustainable sodium-ion batteries

The goal of REALSEI

is to visualize for the first time in real-time the Solid Electrolyte Interphase formation at the hard-carbon anode in a Na-ion battery.

Local electrochemical processes occurring at the solid-liquid interface of Na-ion batteries are currently largely unexplored.

To keep global warming around 2.7°C by 2100

the installed global grid energy storage capacity needs to be tripled by 2050. A technological breakthrough is required to meet this challenge: we need a low cost and sustainable alternative to Li-ion batteries.

‘Beyond-lithium’ batteries can be the solution

Na+ based systems could be an everyday reality. Bio-waste mesoporous hard carbon (BHC) is one of the most promising anode materials as a universal ion host for BLBs. The use of BHC as a low-cost and recycled solution in beyond lithium batteries might provide the breakthrough required and give rise to the next generation of batteries.


uncontrolled SEI formation limits the large-scale application of BHC in beyond lithium batteries, in particular for Na-ion batteries (NIBs).

For NIBs, the SEI is still an unresolved issue that limits its long-term stability.


wants to establish a comprehensive operando time- and space- resolved characterization methodology to transit from bulk to surface analytical characterization based on lab and synchrotron high-resolution X-ray techniques which will results for the first time in a comprehensive visualization and quantification of the species forming the SEI in real-time on HC

In Collaboration with:

EU project code: 101029608